By Claudia Houtson, NBHS historian
NEW BERN — The New Bern Historical Society is excited to announce the discovery of an existing building in downtown that served as both a Confederate and Union hospital during the Civil War.
Historian and author Wade Sokolosky recently discovered several wartime documents that identified a military hospital on Craven Street “next to the Progress Building.” After many discussions, much research and a little bit of luck, it was determined that the Brick Block Building on the 200 block of Craven Street was first used by the Confederates beginning in January 1861.
“We are pleased to share the story of the research and the discovery,” said Mr. Sokolosky.
The Jan. 31, 1862 edition of the New Bern Daily Progress reported, “The rooms adjoining the Progress building have been taken for a hospital and are being overhauled and refitted for that purpose under the supervision of W.A. Holt, Confederate Surgeon. The Dr. is a man of ... judgment as will be seen, not only by the internal arrangement of the building but by the improvement in the way of cleaning up, whitewashing etc....” The Branch General Hospital, as it was formally identified by Confederate authorities, operated through the Battle of New Bern fought on March 14, 1862. On the day of the battle, Surgeon Holt labored to remove his patients to the Atlantic and N.C. Railroad depot in town, where they were evacuated toward Kinston.
Upon occupying New Bern, Union authorities used several local buildings hospitals. In a report published in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal, Volume 66, 1862, Surgeon Samuel E. Kneeland of the Union Army wrote: “On Sunday, March 16, I was ordered to get the Craven-street Hospital ready for the reception of the wounded in that battle. The building was an old three-story warehouse which had been used as a hospital by the Confederates. I found about 150 bedsteads, with beds and coverings in a most filthy condition; one man dead, and another dying, left by the rebels in their hurried flight. I pressed about a dozen contrabands, and had the building scrubbed from top to bottom, and all the beds and clothing aired and sunned.”
This past January, the Brick Block Building’s owner graciously allowed several of us to tour the building. While sharing with us a general history, the owner acknowledged that he was puzzled by the presence of “whitewashing” in only a portion of the building. Research had revealed only a section of the building had served as a hospital.
Civil War hospitals were routinely whitewashed (painted white) to enable better lighting at night, as well as for observing cleanliness. Remarkably, because the hospital part of the building had been closed off for decades and subsequently spared from later modifications, it was like a time capsule. To see the whitewashing was like stepping back in time. This indeed was the hospital. There we were, standing in a building that had previously served 156 years ago as a hospital. Based on his research, Sokolosky revealed to the owner that the Brick Block Building was one of three known North Carolina hospital buildings from the Civil War still standing, not counting historic homes or churches that were used temporarily as hospitals.
This is an exciting discovery and further adds to our knowledge of the existence of Civil War hospitals in eastern Carolina and enriches the significant history of New Bern. Sokolosky, a well-known historian and author, is in the process of completing a two-volume series that discusses the history of Civil War hospitals in the Old North State. The first volume, titled, “North Carolina Civil War Hospitals: Confederate,” is due out in 2022.
Those who worked together to solve this mystery and discover the hospital were: Sokolosky; Nathaniel Glasgow, a recent graduate of Appalachian State; Claudia Houston, historian of NBHS; Jim Hodges, NBHS curator; and the owner of the Brick Block Building. It should be noted that the former hospital is on private property and not available for public viewing.
We are currently pursuing the locations of two other Confederate hospitals here in New Bern prior to the Union occupation.
The mission of the New Bern Historical Society is to celebrate and promote New Bern and its heritage through events and education. Offices are located in the historic Attmore-Oliver House at 511 Broad Street in New Bern.