RALEIGH — Former Charlotte Mayor Pat McCrory was elected North Carolina’s first Republican governor in 20 years on Tuesday, meaning the GOP will control both the executive and legislative branches of government for the first time in more than a century.

The popular ex-mayor of Charlotte captured 55 percent of the vote in a state that was closely contested by both political parties. His victory came four years after he narrowly lost the governor’s race to Democrat Bev Perdue.

“Not many people are given a second chance, and I got a second chance,” Mr. McCrory told The Associated Press on Tuesday night, adding that voters also “got a second chance to retract a potential mistake that they made in 2008.

With all precincts reporting, Mr. McCrory had handily defeated Democrat Walter Dalton, who got more than 43 percent, according to unofficial results. Libertarian Barbara Howe had slightly more than 2 percent.

Support for Mr. McCrory in Carteret County was overwhelming. According to unofficial election results released Tuesday night, Mr. McCrory collected 25,398 votes, about 72 percent, to Mr. Dalton’s 9,056 votes, or 26 percent. Barbara Howe, the Libertarian candidate, received 640 votes, almost 2 percent.

Mr. Dalton jumped into the race after Gov. Perdue decided against a tough re-election campaign, but struggled to make up ground against the better-funded and -known Mr. McCrory. The Republican outspent Mr. Dalton 4-to-1 in the summer and early fall, limiting the Democrat’s ability to get his message out.

“We knew it was tough when we got in this race and we did the most we could with limited resources,” Mr. Dalton told supporters Tuesday evening at a downtown Raleigh hotel, but “we always ran to win and I am proud of that.”

Mr. McCrory said Gov. Perdue and Mr. Dalton called him Tuesday evening.

Now Mr. McCrory, a former Duke Energy Corp. manager, must act upon his long-standing criticisms that the Democratic establishment broke state government and is to blame for a 9.6 percent unemployment rate that is among the nation’s highest.

“We celebrate tonight, but go to work tomorrow,” he said.

Mr. McCrory pledged to improve the economy and public education without necessarily spending more tax money. He also pledged to expand energy exploration and create a more customer-friendly state government, as well as to modernize the state’s tax system. Mr. McCrory cautioned voters against expecting quick fixes.

He will take the oath of office in January, five years after he first announced he was running for governor as a late arriver to the 2008 GOP primary contest. He won the 2008 primary but lost by 3 percentage points to Gov. Perdue, then the state’s lieutenant governor.

Mr. McCrory never left the political stage after the loss — his first defeat ever — and he stayed involved in GOP politics. He completed a record 14 years as Charlotte mayor in 2009, became a regular on the Republican chicken-dinner circuit and participated in some tea-party backed activities. He moved slightly to the right politically to clear this year’s primary field of significant candidates and lined up early support from governors such as Chris Christie of New Jersey and Bobby Jindal of Louisiana.

Mr. McCrory also benefited from Gov. Perdue’s surprise decision in January not to seek re-election in the face of low poll numbers, a sputtering economy and a campaign finance investigation that led to criminal charges against former aides and donors.

Mr. Dalton, a former state senator from Rutherfordton who was elected lieutenant governor in 2008, stepped in but was behind from the start after winning a tough Democratic primary in May.

Voters who called themselves moderate split between Mr. McCrory and Mr. Dalton, and the Republican even picked up about one in eight votes of those who call themselves liberal, according to the results of exit polls conducted for The Associated Press. Six in 10 voters said the economy was the most important issue in the election, and Mr. McCrory won three out of five of those votes.

Mr. Dalton accused Mr. McCrory during the campaign of planning to raise taxes on the middle class and supporting GOP education and health care spending cuts at the General Assembly. Mr. Dalton also tried, with some success, to raise questions about Mr. McCrory’s work at a Charlotte law firm and why Mr. McCrory refused to release his tax returns.

But the public’s familiarity with the Republican made him the quasi-incumbent. He set the campaign’s tone through TV ads portraying himself as a post-partisan outsider and by dismissing Mr. Dalton’s accusations as a sign of desperation.

Mr. McCrory said he’s proud of running a positive campaign and “think it shows that a positive campaign can actually work in politics.”

“We want to send a signal not just to the rest of the state but also the rest of the country that constructive dialogue in a campaign can be successful,” Mr. McCrory said.

The Republican Governors Association also poured money into the race early to reinforce Mr. McCrory’s allegations that Mr. Dalton would raise the sales tax if elected. Mr. Dalton was further hurt by a series of political scandals and controversies over the past decade that largely involved fellow Democrats, including Gov. Perdue and her predecessor, Mike Easley.

Mr. McCrory will become the first Republican governor since Jim Martin was elected to two terms and left office in early 1993. The only other GOP governor since 1901 was Jim Holshouser in the mid-1970s. The GOP will be in control of the Legislature and executive branch for the first time since 1870 because Republicans held onto their majorities in both General Assembly chambers.

Meanwhile, Ms. Howe’s finish means the Libertarian Party apparently will remain an official party for the next four years and avoid a costly petition process to stay on the ballot.

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